Global System for Mobile Communications – Railway (GSM-R) is a radio communication system offering a wide range of voice and data services needed for. This group was named “Groupe Spéciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has since been interpreted in other ways. This group was named “Groupe Spéciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has since been interpreted in other ways, but the most.

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Let us assume that the professor checks out of Madrid and goes to Paris. Two of them are half and full rate traffic channels. There are three major sources of problems in the air interface, which can lead to loss of data.

It can support non call related signalling. It can be seen that the mobile station is sending information periodically.

These timeslots can be syztra to the seats in the vehicle. Exchange Signalling Signalling towards towards subscribers other exchanges Computer units Message bus Collecting Collecting dialled statistical data numbers Collecting Supervising the charging processes data running Making speech Hunting for a path free circuit connections Figure Since the PSTN network is designed for voice communication with a bandwidth of 3.


Mobile originated PSTN terminated call. That is, a PCM channel as a whole 8 bits can be switched from any cable to any channel. Such a situation is created when a mobile is switched on, but no traffic is carried, in which case the mobile is only reading and measuring the information sent by the network.

Which of the ysm was a drawback of CAS signalling?

SYSTRA Training Document | Muhammad Suleman Khan –

For the purpose of ease of understanding the units have been classified according their functions. This means that the main responsibilities of the BSC are: Telecom ’95 was held in Geneva where Nokia demonstrated In the figure below, one of these is presented. They are all bi-directional and point to point channels. This is simple, as she knows the nationality of the professor, his identity and the number of his passport. However, in the VLR, the subscriber data is stored temporarily.


An example of this is the use of facsimile in PSTN. Things become more complicated when it becomes necessary to set up a call. Handover due to measurements occurs when the quality or the strength of the radio signal falls below certain parameters specified in the BSC.

The outcome is an integrated network architecture design that shows how the different services will be implemented and what equipment will be needed.

The connection between the mobile station and the GSM network is fully digital. To provide this service, the network must be able to set up and maintain a call, which involves a number of tasks: The GSM and GSM specifications were merged and additional supplementary services were defined, sytra short message service was improved and improvements in radio access and SIM cards were introduced. The figure below illustrates the TDMA principle. Identifying the calling subscriber.

Which of the following are factors in network planning? The Base Transceiver Station measures gsk time delay from the received signal compared to the delay that would come from a mobile station that was transmitting at zero systda from the Base Transceiver Station.

Between the gs station and the BTS, the same signalling protocol is used with small modifications to cope with the characteristics of the radio transmission medium. The mobile then moves to the allocated dedicated channel for further transactions with the network. Gm some cases, a distant base station broadcasting the same frequency can also be detected by the mobile station.

Referring to the interfaces, the more complicated the interfaces in use, the more intelligence is required between the interfaces in order to implement all the functions required. The MSC is responsible for collecting charging information. The radio link is the most vulnerable part of the connection and a great deal of work is needed to ensure its high quality and reliable operation. The MSISDN fulfils the purpose of identification, but locating requires a quick and comprehensive system for keeping track of the subscriber.


The systrx number is used in initiating the connection and it has the following structure: This method is syztra time charging. The Billing Centre with information from the transcoder. As an example, open water attenuates the signal less than for instance forest or city environment. Network dimensioning based on coverage and capacity requirements. Which network element creates bills for the subscriber?

It has to be pointed out that the HLR does not handle network traffic at all. The radio carrier frequencies are arranged in pairs and the difference between gm two frequencies uplink-downlink is called the duplex frequency. The conversation, which is the primary task, and what went on behind the scene to make the conversation successful.

Last, but not least, the subscribers can give us valuable information concerning the experienced quality of service. The calling subscriber only knows that he is dialling a number in a certain mobile network, and therefore he can only be charged for the services that he is aware of. The mobile then falls silent for the next seven timeslots and then sends the next burst gsj so on.

Implementations of the transcoder at different sites The real advantage, however, comes if we use the second configuration shown in the figure with another piece of hardware called submultiplexer.

There are three dedicated control channels: TDMA frames with common and dedicated channels As seen in the figure above, gssm logical channels are placed in different timeslots depending on whether they sysstra common channels used by several mobile stations blue above or if they are dedicated to a certain mobile station in connection with a call yellow above.